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Three partitions of Poland took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the PolishĖLithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were perpetrated by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria.

Allegory of the 1st partition of Poland
Nicolas NoŽl Le Mire (1724-1800)

Allegory of the first partition of Poland
Cathrina II of Russia (left), Emperor Josef II. and King Frederick II. of Prussia tearing a map of Poland apart.
On the left is the beleaguered Polish king, Stanislaw August Poniatowski expecting difficulties keeping the crown on his head.

  1765 Foundation   Duchy of Warsaw